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【展览销售、鉴赏交流、委托交易,传播中华文化】
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鼻烟壶:别有洞天的小众藏品

发表时间:2018-05-11所属分类:古玩资讯


方寸之间“集齐”中国艺术文化

鼻烟是一种烟草制品,原为西洋之物,明末清初自?#20998;?#20256;入中国后,加工转化后成为粉末状药材,吸闻之后具有明目避疫的功效。

虽然是“外来物种”,吸食鼻烟却迅速风行,连带盛鼻烟的容器鼻烟壶也开始盛?#23567;?#32780;在几百年的发展史中,鼻烟壶逐渐成为“形式大于内容”的典型,鼻烟如今已几乎绝迹,鼻烟壶则因为涵盖了几乎所有的中国艺术文化,而成为经久不衰的收藏门类。

鼻烟壶的历史文化价值有多高?甬上名家吴慈曾在《烟壶赞歌》一文中有详尽的描述:“鼻烟壶是中国文物之集大成者,是华夏艺术文化的一朵奇葩,它高约3-8厘米,集各种材质于一壶之内,汇中外文化于方寸之中,有玻璃、陶瓷、金银、铜锡、玉石、紫砂、砗磲、珊瑚、琥珀、蜜蜡、玛瑙、玳瑁、犀角、象牙、葫芦、核桃、木豆、竹木等,无不应有尽有;又集书画、诗赋、模印、琢磨、雕刻、洒金、搅色、嵌镶、堆塑、火烫、鎏金等手段,无不用其极;更有人物、龙凤、动物、山水、瓜果、菜蔬、花鸟、鱼虫等万物齐备;又汇地理、历史、政治、经济、文化、艺术、科学、八角形、环形、胆形、菱形、?#26377;巍?#25159;形、葫芦形、瓜棱形等无形不备;又以透明、不透明、半透明、红、黄、兰、白、黑、绿、紫、窑变等,纳百色于其?#23567;?/span>

鼻烟壶收藏一直“外热内冷”

这些年国内的鼻烟壶市场价格一直在走高,国内的拍卖场上也每年都在亮相,但总体来说还属于冷门收藏,拍场的买家也大多是外国人。

鼻烟壶收藏一直“外热内冷”。?#31185;?#21407;因,主要是从前藏家认为这种雕虫小技不值得收藏,因此大部分藏品都流入?#20998;蓿?#22914;今虽然有越来越多的藏家开始涉及这个门类,但它仍非市场主流,藏家也都集中在上海、北京等一线城市,或者是当地出过现代内画壶工艺大师的地区。

多数藏家会在自己熟悉的领域收藏个把,例如玩玉的藏家,在拍卖会上碰到漂亮的玉鼻烟壶,就顺道收一个,玩小件瓷器的藏家,也收几个瓷鼻烟壶,平时可以放在掌心把玩把玩。

重材质观念让料器壶遇冷

在鼻烟壶的各种门类里,玉、翡翠、象牙、玛瑙……这些鼻烟壶材质名贵,容易辨识,升值空间笃定,自然会受到藏家青睐。而几乎占据了半壁江山的玻璃(料器)鼻烟壶因为材?#21183;?#24120;,反而受到冷落。

据一位正在进行鼻烟壶系统收藏的藏家介绍,料器其实是最早的用材,因为玻璃是西方传入的,物以稀为贵,古代比玉石、金银都昂贵,因此古人在它身上花的功夫也最多,比如金星料、花料、雄黄料及各种仿宝石?#31995;齲?#20013;国?#21496;?#24471;特洋气,你拿?#20171;?#32418;,我拿鸡油黄,还有人拿葱心绿,宝石蓝……烟壶拿出来,就是一个人的身份”。

从艺术价值来看,料器鼻烟壶显然更高,其中承载的历史文化价值也是其它类别鼻烟壶所不能比拟的。

珐琅彩壶可遇不可求

此外还有一种顶尖拍卖场上的“常客”,那就是珐琅彩鼻烟壶。

铜料(或金、银)用特殊溶液浸泡后,去除杂质,洗净,便制成了铜胎,然后在其上涂饰珐琅釉。若在釉料中加溶解铜,烧制后即能产生辉煌的黄金般的色彩效果;若加溶解银,则会产生莹白流动的锦缎般的艺术效果。画珐琅器皿的?#21672;?#22810;为深蓝色、黑色或黄色。在彩绘上,用粗壮的黑线勾勒,突出主题和轮廓,使对比更加强烈。

还有一种玻璃胎珐琅彩,即将珐琅彩釉绘在玻璃上,焙烧后乃成。

马未都在《醉文明》中对珐琅彩也有一段有趣的描述:《红楼梦》里记载的晴雯感冒后,宝玉拿了一个金星玻璃的鼻烟盒(和鼻烟壶相同功用)对她说,“给你调点儿鼻烟,你吸了以后感冒就会好”,?#30340;?#40763;烟盒上头画得很漂亮,画的是外国小人,长两个小肉翅,应该是小天使。马未都猜测那是画珐琅,他还调侃外国人没有想象力,“我们唐代的 ‘飞天’身子一拧就飞了,根本不用有翅膀”。

在市场上,和大多数普通鼻烟壶相比,珐琅彩鼻烟壶价格显得格外之高,自然将普通藏家挡在了门外。



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